In Islam, women are guaranteed greater financial security than men. They have the right to receive marital gifts and to keep property and income, present and future, for their security. No married woman is required to spend even a penny of her property and income on the family. She is entitled to full maintenance during marriage and during the waiting period (the waiting period after divorce) in the event of a divorce – and if she has children, she is also entitled to child support.
No financial responsibility
In Islam, a woman does not have a financial obligation to her; It is the man who bears this responsibility in the family. The task of her father or brother before marriage is to take over her house, pension, clothing, and money, and it becomes the task of her husband or son when she marries.
If a woman works and is not obligated to her work – the gain that she makes is her own. She is not obligated to spend any of it in her house unless she freely wants to do so. No matter how wealthy the wife is, the duty to provide for the wife, to eat, dress, and take care of the husband’s financial aspects remains with her husband.
Her financial woman’s assets as a wife
Since its inception, Islam has given married women an independent personality. In Islam, the bride and her family are not obligated to present a gift to the groom. It is the groom who must offer the bride a dowry. This dowry is considered her property and neither her boyfriend nor her family has any interest or control over it.
The bride keeps her wedding gifts even if she gets divorced later. The husband has no share in his wife’s property except what she offers to him with her free consent. The Qur’an has clarified the Islamic position on this issue very clearly in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Give the woman a dowry of her own accord, but if she gives up part of it voluntarily for your good, then enjoy it for your good.” [Surat An-Nisa: 4]
The wife’s property and earnings are under her complete control and exclusive use as she and her children are under the husband’s responsibility. No matter how wealthy the wife is, she is not obligated to serve as the breadwinner for the family unless she voluntarily chooses to do so. The spouses inherit from each other. In addition, a married woman in Islam keeps the legal personality separate from her and her family name.
Centuries ago, Islam gave women the right to inherit. If a person reads the Qur’an – in different verses in [Surat al-Risa’ (4)], [Surat al-Baqarah (2)], and [Surat al-Ma’idah (5)], it is mentioned that a woman has the right to inherit, regardless of status; Be it a wife, mother, sister or daughter.
In general, a Muslim woman is assured of support at all stages of her life, as a daughter, wife, mother, or sister. These additional advantages of women over men are balanced by inheritance provisions, which allow a man, in most cases, to inherit twice as much as a female. This means that a man inherits more but is financially responsible for other women: sisters, wives, mothers, and sisters, while a woman (for example a wife) inherits less but keeps everything for investment and financial security without having to spend any money. Part of this is even for their livelihood (food, clothing, housing, medicine, etc.).
The difference between the Qur’an and other schools of thought
One of the most important differences between the Qur’an and other schools of thought is the attitude toward the inheritance of the property of its deceased relative. Islam abolished all unjust customs and gave all associated women a share of the inheritance, unlike other religions. And in the Qur’an, God Almighty said:﴿ For men, a share of what the parents and the closeness are left, and the women are a share of what the children are left.
Muslim mothers, wives, daughters, and sisters gained inheritance rights 1,300 years before Europe recognized their existence. The division of inheritance is a broad topic, with a great deal of detail in various verses of the Qur’an.
Rational justification for the distribution
The general rule is that the share of the female is half the share of the male, except in cases where the mother has a share equal to that of the father. This general rule, in isolation from other legislation relating to men and women, may seem unfair. To understand the logic behind this rule, one must take into account the fact that the financial obligations of men in Islam outweigh those of women, as mentioned above.
The groom must give his bride the marriage dowry, which becomes her property and remains so even if the divorce takes place later. The bride is not obligated to present a gift to her groom. Even a Muslim husband is responsible for providing for his wife and children. As for the wife, she does not have to help him in this regard. Her property and profits are for her exclusive use except for what she voluntarily gives to her husband.
On the other hand, you have to know that Islam strongly defends family life. He strongly advises young men to marry, discourages divorce, and does not consider celibacy a virtue. Therefore, in a truly Islamic society, family life is the rule, and loneliness is the rare exception. Most women and men of marriageable age are married in an Islamic society. In light of these facts, one can realize that Muslim men, in general, bear a greater financial burden than Muslim women, and thus the rules of inheritance are dedicated to counteracting this imbalance so that society can live without gender and class war.
After a simple comparison between the financial rights and duties of Muslim women, it can be demonstrated that Islam not only treated women fairly but also generously.
The obligation of the marriage dowry
When a woman marries, she is on the receiving end. You receive a gift – a dowry called the dowry in Arabic.
For marriage to be formalized in Islam, the dowry is mandatory. There is no minimum or maximum dowry in Islam – but it is advised to keep it low because a high dowry can be a burden on the spouses (not just the husband) and get them to start their lives with a negative balance, or a financial drain in the end.
There are different cultures mixed with Islamic societies, which turned the matter around and placed the financial obligations of marriage on the (future) wife and her family. Demanding dowry from the wife directly or indirectly is forbidden in Islam. However, if the girl’s parents give something to her voluntarily, it is accepted. But demand or compulsion, directly or indirectly, is prohibited in Islam.
The moral and financial responsibilities of the home
الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاء بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُواْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللّهُ وَاللاَّتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلاَ تَبْغُواْ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا [سورة النساء: 34].
This verse summarizes that the material and moral responsibilities of the house are borne by the husband. The natural, physical and social qualities of a human being require that he be responsible for these responsibilities because his strength allows him to function without having to care about menstruation, pregnancy, nursing, and caring for children when they are young.
The man is the guardian of his house, the shepherd of his flock, and he will be held accountable for his responsibilities. Women, because of their physical structure and emotional and social nature, are ready to take on the role of mother and housewife. Women have intuition and emotional intelligence and this is the female role that should be honored and protected.
Because of the pain and burdens of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, childbirth, nursing, and constant childcare, women often need periods of childbirth and rest and are not obligated to work or be responsible for providing for their household. This would affect her mental state and would be reflected in her life, in her attitudes and behavior. This is normal in many societies, but as mentioned before, sometimes injustice is committed.
Women’s financial rights in Arabic literature
The famous Egyptian writer Abbas Mahmoud Al-Akkad says: “A woman has a very special emotional style that does not resemble a man. The mindset of an infant must be the same as that of her caregiver, her mother so that she can understand what she wants, what she needs, and how she thinks and feels. To achieve this, Women are more sensitive to emotions. This characteristic makes it more difficult for a woman, compared to a man, to be assertive, violent, and decisive when needed.